The softest? You’re a real genius if you answer that!
I used it on some of my favorite drawings I did in the past year or so and it has given me an edge in the drawing process.
I really hope I can do a bunch more drawings like that in the future 🙂
In a previous article in The Nation, I argued that in addition to reducing the “social cost” of carbon emissions, a more direct approach is needed to address climate change. It is clear from the scientific evidence that we are getting dangerously close to 2°C climate change over pre-industrial temperatures. A combination of emissions reductions and adaptation measures that would allow ecosystems and societies of the future to adapt. But how might it be done?
The “carbon floor” of the atmosphere – above which atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases don’t rise – is believed to be around 800 parts per million (ppm). But for a long time it has been assumed that no changes in these concentrations can be sustained for more than 800 years. Because of this, when the world warms (at least 1.5°C above pre-industrial temperatures) there is virtually a constant rise above which a level of CO2 above this concentration cannot be sustained – known as the “carbon floor.”
This “carbon floor” has also come to be known as “the climate ” floor. It has been the focus of some of the most important policy discussions of recent history: the Copenhagen Conference of 2007, the Paris Climate Accord of 2015, the 2016 Paris Agreement, and so on. Yet, despite this fact, many have been puzzled as to whether it is even possible to get such a floor. The answer is yes, but only because the Paris Agreement does not contain any ” carbon-floor” at all.
This paper gives the first estimates of precisely how much CO2 can be released into the atmosphere by 2100 before it depletes it’s capacity to store large amounts of energy. As the authors point out, the “carbon floor” has now become the “climate floor” – the point at which the emissions of both greenhouse gases and infrared (heat) radiation exceeds the climate “floor” and becomes a net negative feedback. Therefore, in order to avoid potentially irreversible changes to temperature and ice-coverage, it is also necessary to take action now to limit those two emissions sources. The key elements of such action are:
A global cap-and-trade system. A carbon tax. A carbon dividend. In combination
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