Well, they only hurt the horses because your horse can’t really feel the whips.
And so it is the case in this instance, as the horses aren’t really harmed by, say, the whip’s sharp points, but some part of them is.
And that is how we get into trouble with the problem we’re having here: that we’re not really sure about what it is the whips are about, because the words they give us are contradictory and we’re uncertain about how to identify what they are.
To see the problem in this case, we need to come back to the idea of a mind.
“Mind” would have been an appropriate word here—in that you can’t really have an ‘incomplete’ mind without a ‘complete’ “mind”—because we can’t go on to talk about the workings of that mind without at that point getting into a mess of concepts (in terms of meaning, meaning of action, etc).
The problem is that we can’t be sure we’re on the right track with these. For that, we need some kind of ‘body’ (that we can see or touch, at least a body). If we want to describe that ‘body’, we have to pick out some of the parts of it (i.e. the ‘body parts’) that will act upon a target being. The ‘body’ doesn’t have to have a definite shape, just some kind of shape.
And this brings us back again to the distinction between the ‘whips’ and that other sort of mind—the mind that is ‘complete’ or in a sense ‘incomplete’. If you don’t have this ‘complete’ mind of your own, then you don’t have that body. Even when, in our mental picture, we want a ‘thing-being’ to be the ‘complete’ mind of the complete body, that ‘thing-being’ is often still just the ‘mind’; and just because you can’t have your own mind, don’t think we’re missing everything.
The point we’re making is that by talking about the whips as ‘having qualities of pain’, you make a mistake about what we mean by ‘perceived’ pain.
Consider that an animal might go ‘bang’ when something’s on its whiskers: this is, in a way, an effect or consequence of not being able to see something. In that particular case it’s a pain that you’re getting
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