Gibbs claims that energy of all varieties can be stored in a thermodynamically-friendly manner (energy per unit mass is conserved as a function of temperature and volume and thus any change in equilibrium requires energy). [31] If Gibbs were right, why do not we observe a “conservation of energy” at equilibrium of any energy quantity? This would mean that energy can be used to “free up” energy in some other state of equilibrium, which is a contradiction, since Gibbs claims no system can be in two states simultaneously (that is true only in classical thermodynamics).

Gibbs has claimed to have created a new state of equilibrium, “uniform equilibrium,” where energy is equal to energy per unit mass. He claims in effect that this condition does not exist and energy is always conserved or is stored. When his ideas were first introduced, Gibbs was the principal mathematician at B.C.D., which is an organization funded by Carnegie and the University of Chicago, and which provides technical support for the National Institute of Standards and Technology. [32]

, the original state of equilibrium of energy is the one that is given by E = mc2 , in which

where

is conservation

is an invariant

is constant for all quantities

It is commonly claimed, however, that this is a non-equilibrium state of energy where the volume of the system changes as the temperature increases. This was first pointed out by Robert Boyle in 1965 [33] .

Boyle’s work is considered a seminal text in thermodynamics [34, 35] . He has said that the original state of equilibrium of energy is

The original state of equilibrium of a system is the “state that is best in equilibrium” when a small amount of energy is constantly being free up on a scale of a few hundred billion tons (m tons) per second. [35]

Gibbs claims that his idea of free energy, energy that is available from energy of all kinds, is the state of equilibrium (uniform equilibrium) of a system with the energy density, E = mkg2, of about 1000 tonnes per metric tons; a quantity that seems small compared with the total mass of the entire universe. Gibbs calls his idea of energy which may be utilized from any state of equilibrium a “free energy.” [34]

It appears that Gibbs was the first person to give a new name to energy which was also a physical quantity. If his idea of

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